Aristotle - Philosophy and Ethics
Aristotle was born in 384 BC in Stageira, Greece. He was a student of Plato and later on a tutor for Alexander the Great. Aristotle wrote many still important works in almost every scientifical topic, for example Logic, Physics, Metaphysics, Biology, Philosophy, Ethics, Politics, Rhetoric and Poetics. Aristotle died in 322 BC in Euboea.
Plato (428 BC - 348 BC) was Aristotle's teacher at the Academy in Athens. He is famous for his works about philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric and mathematics.
Alexander the Great (356 BC - 323 BC) was a student of Aristotle in subjects like medicine, morals, religion, logic and art. He was a king of the state Macedonia and one of the most successful commanders of all time.
Ethics is a philosophical subject which handles the question of the best way to live. Aristotle's answer to this question was to live the life of philosophy and contemplation.
Aristotle's politics are about the natural community of a city. In Aristotle's treatises the aim of the city is not just to prevent injustice or keep economic safety, but rather to allow at at least some citizens the possibility to live a good life. The word politics is derived from the greek word polis (city).
In Aristotle's treatises rhetoric was one of the three key elements of philosophy, along with logic and dialectic. These elements together create a system of persuasion based on knowledge instead of manipulation of emotion.
Aristotle's treatise on poetics is supposed to be the first surviving work on philosophy with focus on literary theory. In ancient Greek poetry included drama, comedy and tragedy as well as satyr play and epic poetry.
Aristotle is credited with the earliest study of formal logic, and his conception of it was the dominant form of Western logic until the 19th century. Aristotle's teacher Plato developed a reasonable conception of a deducting system but could never acutally construct one.
In his studies on physics Aristotle assumed that there are five elements: Fire, Earth, Air, Water and a new one which he added, Aether. His physical works also contained motion, causality, optics, chance and spontaneity.
The term metaphyisics was created after Aristotle's death and means behind the physics. Aristotle defines metaphysics as the knowledge of immaterial being or of being in the highest degree of abstraction. He calls metaphysics the first philosophy and the theologic science.
Aristotle's research in the field of biology were mainly about the natural environment of the island Lesbos, where he observed the surrounding seas and also neighbouring areas. He created a classification of animals in today's called vertebrates and invertebrates and live-bearing and egg-bearing.